Life history variables (LHV) in primates are closely correlated with the ages of tooth eruption, which are a useful proxy to predict growth and development in extant and extinct species. However, it is not known how tooth eruption ages interact with LHV in polymorphic species such as modern humans. African pygmies are at the one extreme in the range of human size variation. LHV in the Baka pygmies are similar to those in standard populations. We would therefore expect tooth eruption ages to be similar also. This mixed (longitudinal and cross-sectional) study of tooth eruption in Baka individuals of known age reveals that eruption in all tooth classes occurs earlier than in any other human population. Earlier tooth eruption can be related to the particular somatic growth in the Baka but cannot be correlated with LHV. The link between LHV and tooth eruption seems disrupted in H. sapiens, allowing adaptive variations in tooth eruption in response to different environmental constraints while maintaining the unique human life cycle.