Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia two and a half year experience.

Turk J Haematol 2005 Jun;22(2):79-86

This study is performed to evaluate outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in chronic myeloid leukemia at Armed Forces Bone Marrow Transplant Centre, Rawalpindi from Apr 2002 to Oct 2004. Twenty-two patients with CML underwent allogeneic SCT from HLA matched siblings. Patients were divided into standard (n= 14) and high-risk (n= 8) groups. Patients were subjected to conditioning regimens consisting of busulphan and cyclophosphamide. Cyclosporin, prednisolone and methotrexate were given for GVHD prophylaxis. All donors were subjected to PBSC harvest after G-CSF therapy for five days. All patients received G-CSF from day + 5 until ANC > 0.5 x 109/L. The median age of the patients was 29 years (range 7-53 years) with a male to female ratio of 6.3: 1. Engraftment was achieved in all patients. Median time to achieve neutrophil (ANC 0.5 x 109/L) and platelet (20 x 109/L) recovery was 13 days and 12 days respectively. Median stay in hospital was 18 days. Acute GVHD (Grade II-IV) was observed in eleven patients (50%) while chronic GVHD was seen in four patients (18%). One patient relapsed 8 months post-transplant. Two patients (9%) developed VOD liver. One patient had haemorrhagic cystitis. Four patients (18%) developed post-transplant infectious complications, which included Pseudomonas septicemia, aspergillosis, tuberculous pleural effusion and herpes zoster. Overall mortality was 22.7% (n= 5). The major causes of mortality were VOD liver, GVHD grade IV, Pseudomonas septicemia and aspergillosis. Overall survival was 77.2% (n= 17) and disease free survival was (n= 16) 72.7%. Follow up ranges from 23 to 828 days (median 212 days). The preliminary results of SCT in this small series of patients with CML are very encouraging. To improve the long-term survival it is imperative that patients are transplanted early after diagnosis and conditioning regimens are selected carefully.

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June 2005

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