Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a multisystem disorder and tumor predisposition syndrome caused by genetic mutation on chromosome 17-17q11.2 in NF type 1 (NF1), and on chromosome 22-22q12.2 in NF type 2. The disorder is characterized by considerable heterogeneity of clinical expression. NF1 is the form with the most characteristic ocular manifestations. Lisch nodules of the iris are among the well-known diagnostic criteria for the disease. Glaucoma and associated globe enlargement have been described in a significant proportion of patients with NF1 and orbital-facial involvement. Optic nerve glioma may cause strabismus and proptosis, and palpebral neurofibroma may reach considerable size and occasionally show malignant transformation. Near infrared reflectance has greatly contributed to enhancing our knowledge on choroidal alterations in NF1. Indeed, some authors have proposed to include these among the diagnostic criteria. Optical coherence tomography has given new insight on retinal alterations and is a noninvasive tool in the management of optic nerve gliomas in children. Ocular manifestations in NF type 2 can range from early-onset cataracts in up to 80% of cases to optic nerve hamartomas and combined pigment epithelial and retinal hamartomas.