Exp Neurol 2017 Jan 27;287(Pt 2):153-164. Epub 2016 May 27.
Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:
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J Neurophysiol 2011 Jun 6;105(6):3080-91. Epub 2011 Apr 6.
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA.
Hypertension elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is associated with elevated activity of the thoracic sympathetic nerve (tSN) that exhibits an enhanced respiratory modulation reflecting a strengthened interaction between respiratory and sympathetic networks within the brain stem. Expiration is a passive process except for special metabolic conditions such as hypercapnia, when it becomes active through phasic excitation of abdominal motor nerves (AbN) in late expiration. An increase in CO(2) evokes late-expiratory (late-E) discharges phase-locked to phrenic bursts with the frequency increasing quantally as hypercapnia increases. Read More
Acta Physiol Scand 2003 Mar;177(3):377-84
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.
The chemoreflexes are important modulators of sympathetic activation. The peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid bodies respond primarily to hypoxaemia. Central chemoreceptors located in the region of the brainstem respond to hypercapnia. Read More
Hypertension 2016 10 1;68(4):1021-30. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
From the Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) produces respiratory-related sympathetic overactivity and hypertension in rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the enhanced central respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity after CIH also decreases the sympathoinhibitory component of baroreflex of rats, which may contribute to the development of hypertension. Wistar rats were exposed to CIH or normoxia (control group) for 10 days. Read More
Exp Physiol 2015 Feb 6;100(2):143-8. Epub 2015 Jan 6.
Department of Physiology and Pathology, School of Dentistry of Araraquara, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, SP, Brazil.
New Findings: What is the topic of this review? Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), as observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea, is associated with the development of sympathetically mediated arterial hypertension. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underpinning the augmented sympathetic outflow in CIH still remain under investigation. What advances does it highlight? In this report, I present experimental evidence supporting the hypothesis that changes in the function of the respiratory network and coupling with the sympathetic nervous system may be considered as a novel and relevant mechanism for the increase in baseline sympathetic outflow in animals submitted to CIH. Read More