Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing various nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to characterise the molecular support of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii clinical isolates recovered from two Libyan hospitals. Bacterial isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion and Etest methods, and carbapenem resistance determinants were studied by PCR amplification and sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for typing of the isolates. All 36 imipenem-resistant isolates tested were identified as A. baumannii. The blaOXA-23 gene was detected in 29 strains (80.6%). The metallo-β-lactamase blaNDM-1 gene was detected in eight isolates (22.2%), showing dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumannii in Tripoli Medical Center and Burn and Plastic Surgery Hospital in Libya, including one isolate that co-expressed the blaOXA-23 gene. MLST revealed several sequence types (STs). Imipenem-resistant A. baumannii ST2 was the predominant clone (16/36; 44.4%). This study shows that NDM-1 and OXA-23 contribute to antibiotic resistance in Libyan hospitals and represents the first incidence of the association of these two carbapenemases in an autochthonous MDR A. baumannii isolated from patients in Libya, indicating that there is a longstanding infection control problem in these hospitals.