A Pathogen-Selective Antibiotic Minimizes Disturbance to the Microbiome.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2016 07 20;60(7):4264-73. Epub 2016 Jun 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee, USA

Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy decimates the gut microbiome, resulting in a variety of negative health consequences. Debio 1452 is a staphylococcus-selective enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI) inhibitor under clinical development and was used to determine whether treatment with pathogen-selective antibiotics would minimize disturbance to the microbiome. The effect of oral Debio 1452 on the microbiota of mice was compared to the effects of four commonly used broad-spectrum oral antibiotics. During the 10 days of oral Debio 1452 treatment, there was minimal disturbance to the gut bacterial abundance and composition, with only the unclassified S24-7 taxon reduced at days 6 and 10. In comparison, broad-spectrum oral antibiotics caused ∼100- to 4,000-fold decreases in gut bacterial abundance and severely altered the microbial composition. The gut bacterial abundance and composition of Debio 1452-treated mice were indistinguishable from those of untreated mice 2 days after the antibiotic treatment was stopped. In contrast, the bacterial abundance in broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treated mice took up to 7 days to recover, and the gut composition of the broad-spectrum-antibiotic-treated mice remained different from that of the control group 20 days after the cessation of antibiotic treatment. These results illustrate that a pathogen-selective approach to antibiotic development will minimize disturbance to the gut microbiome.

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Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.00535-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914625PMC
July 2016

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