J Intensive Care 2016 27;4:28. Epub 2016 Apr 27.
Department of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nippon Medical School, 1-1-5, Sendagi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8603 Japan.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is recognized as the significant cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. To reduce unfavorable outcome in TBI patients, many researches have made much efforts for the innovation of TBI treatment. With the results from several basic and clinical studies, targeted temperature management (TTM) including therapeutic hypothermia (TH) have been recognized as the candidate of neuroprotective treatment. However, their evidences are not yet proven in larger randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The main aim of this review is thus to clarify specific pathophysiology which TTM will be effective in TBI. Historically, there were several clinical trials which compare TH and normothermia. Recently, two RCTs were able to demonstrate the significant beneficial effects of TTM in one specific pathology, patients with mass evacuated lesions. These suggested that TTM might be effective especially for the ischemic-reperfusional pathophysiology of TBI, like as acute subdural hematoma which needs to be evacuated. Also, the latest preliminary report of European multicenter trial suggested the promising efficacy of reduction of intracranial pressure in TBI. Conclusively, TTM is still in the center of neuroprotective treatments in TBI. This therapy is expected to mitigate ischemic and reperfusional pathophysiology and to reduce intracranial pressure in TBI. Further results from ongoing clinical RCTs are waited.