Diabetologia 2016 07 6;59(7):1533-1541. Epub 2016 Apr 6.
Department of Genetics, Division of Stress Adaptation and Recognition, Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 4648601, Japan.
Aims/hypothesis: The action of incretin hormones including glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is potentiated in animal models defective in glucagon action. It has been reported that such animal models maintain normoglycaemia under streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta cell damage. However, the role of GIP in regulation of glucose metabolism under a combination of glucagon deficiency and STZ-induced beta cell damage has not been fully explored.
Methods: In this study, we investigated glucose metabolism in mice deficient in proglucagon-derived peptides (PGDPs)-namely glucagon gene knockout (GcgKO) mice-administered with STZ. Single high-dose STZ (200 mg/kg, hSTZ) or moderate-dose STZ for five consecutive days (50 mg/kg × 5, mSTZ) was administered to GcgKO mice. The contribution of GIP to glucose metabolism in GcgKO mice was also investigated by experiments employing dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) inhibitor (DPP4i) or Gcg-Gipr double knockout (DKO) mice.
Results: GcgKO mice developed severe diabetes by hSTZ administration despite the absence of glucagon. Administration of mSTZ decreased pancreatic insulin content to 18.8 ± 3.4 (%) in GcgKO mice, but ad libitum-fed blood glucose levels did not significantly increase. Glucose-induced insulin secretion was marginally impaired in mSTZ-treated GcgKO mice but was abolished in mSTZ-treated DKO mice. Although GcgKO mice lack GLP-1, treatment with DPP4i potentiated glucose-induced insulin secretion and ameliorated glucose intolerance in mSTZ-treated GcgKO mice, but did not increase beta cell area or significantly reduce apoptotic cells in islets.
Conclusions/interpretation: These results indicate that GIP has the potential to ameliorate glucose intolerance even under STZ-induced beta cell damage by increasing insulin secretion rather than by promoting beta cell survival.