Temporal relationship between premonitory urges and tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

Authors:
Valerie C Brandt
Valerie C Brandt
University of Cambridge
Christian Beck
Christian Beck
School of Mathematical Sciences
United Kingdom
Valeria Sajin
Valeria Sajin
Institute of Neurogenetics
Magdalena K Baaske
Magdalena K Baaske
Institute of Neurogenetics
Christian Beste
Christian Beste
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Germany
Silke Anders
Silke Anders
Institute of Medical Psychology and Behavioral Neurobiology

Cortex 2016 Apr 23;77:24-37. Epub 2016 Jan 23.

Department of Paediatric and Adult Movement Disorders and Neuropsychiatry, Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Germany.

Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Tourette syndrome and are commonly viewed as the driving force of tics, building up before and subsiding after the execution of tics. Although the urge-tic interplay is one of the most preeminent features in Tourette syndrome, the temporal relationship between tics and urges has never been examined experimentally, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate assessment tool. We investigated the temporal relationship between urge intensity and tics in 17 Tourette patients and between urge intensity and eye blinks in 16 healthy controls in a free ticcing/blinking condition and a tic/blink suppression condition. For this purpose, an urge assessment tool was developed that allows real-time monitoring and quantification of urge intensity. Compared to free ticcing/blinking, urge intensity was higher during the suppression condition in both Tourette patients and healthy controls, while tics and blinks occurred less frequently. The data show that urge intensity increases prior to tics and decreases after tics in a time window of approximately ±10 sec. Tic suppression had a significant effect on the shape of the urge distribution around tics and led to a decrease in the size of the correlation between urge intensity and tics, indicating that tic suppression led to a de-coupling of tics and urges. In healthy controls, urges to blink were highly associated with eye blink execution, albeit in a narrower time frame (∼±5 sec). Blink suppression had a similar effect on the urge distribution associated with eye blinks as tic suppression had on the urge to tic in Tourette patients. These results corroborate the negative reinforcement model, which proposes that tics are associated with a relief in urges, thereby perpetuating ticcing behaviour. This study also documents similarities and differences between urges to act in healthy controls and urges to tic in Tourette syndrome.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2016.01.008DOI Listing

Still can't find the full text of the article?

Sign up to send a request to the authors directly.
April 2016
61 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

urge intensity
24
healthy controls
16
tourette syndrome
16
tourette patients
12
temporal relationship
12
tic suppression
12
tics
12
urge
10
suppression urge
8
urge distribution
8
associated eye
8
urges healthy
8
controls urges
8
tic tourette
8
suppression condition
8
free ticcing/blinking
8
eye blinks
8
intensity tics
8
assessment tool
8
tics urges
8

Similar Publications

Cocaine alters the mouse testicular epigenome with direct impact on histone acetylation and DNA methylation marks.

Reprod Biomed Online 2018 09 17;37(3):269-278. Epub 2018 Aug 17.

Centro de Estudios Biomédicos, Biotecnológicos, Ambientales y de Diagnóstico (CEBBAD), Universidad Maimónides, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Research Question: Recent evidence suggests that cocaine administration in animal models can trigger non-genetic inheritance of addiction traits from father to offspring, affecting development and behaviour. Is chronic cocaine intake involved in alterations of epigenetic homeostasis in the testis?

Design: Epigenetic marks and mediators in testis and isolated germ cells of adult mice treated with cocaine (10 mg/kg) or vehicle (sterile saline solution) were evaluated in an intermittent binge protocol: three intraperitoneal injections, 1 h apart, one day on/off for 13 days, collecting tissue 24 h after the last binge administration (day 14).

Results: It was shown that chronic cocaine intake in mice disrupts testicular epigenetic homeostasis, increasing global methylated cytosine levels in DNA from germ cells and sperm. Read More

View Article
September 2018
23 Reads
3.02 Impact Factor

Small family, big impact: In silico analysis of DREB2 transcription factor family in rice.

Authors:
Venura Herath

Comput Biol Chem 2016 Dec 29;65:128-139. Epub 2016 Oct 29.

Department of Agricultural Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya 20400, Sri Lanka. Electronic address:

Dehydration-responsive element- (DREB) proteins are considered as the master regulators of plant abiotic stress responses including drought, salinity and cold. They are also involved in other developmental processes such as embryo and endosperm development. DREB family of transcription factors consist of two sub families namely CBF1/DREB1 and DREB2. Read More

View Article
December 2016
6 Reads
1 PubMed Central Citation(source)
1.12 Impact Factor

Efficient utilization of cassava pulp for succinate production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122.

Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 2015 Jan 17;38(1):175-87. Epub 2014 Jul 17.

Metabolic Engineering Research Unit, Institute of Agricultural Technology, School of Biotechnology, Suranaree University of Technology, 111 University Avenue, Suranaree Sub-District, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima, 30000, Thailand.

A metabolically engineered Escherichia coli KJ122 was efficiently utilized for succinate production from cassava pulp during batch separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) under simple anaerobic conditions. Succinate concentration of 41.46 ± 0. Read More

View Article
January 2015
12 Reads
1 PubMed Central Citation(source)
2.00 Impact Factor

Inner ear hair cell-like cells from human embryonic stem cells.

Stem Cells Dev 2014 Jun 10;23(11):1275-84. Epub 2014 Mar 10.

1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine , Stanford, California.

In mammals, the permanence of many forms of hearing loss is the result of the inner ear's inability to replace lost sensory hair cells. Here, we apply a differentiation strategy to guide human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into cells of the otic lineage using chemically defined attached-substrate conditions. The generation of human otic progenitor cells was dependent on fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, and protracted culture led to the upregulation of markers indicative of differentiated inner ear sensory epithelia. Read More

View Article
June 2014
20 Reads
19 PubMed Central Citations(source)
3.73 Impact Factor

Determination of mirtazapine in spiked human plasma and tablets by first derivative spectrofluorimetric method.

Authors:
Rasha M Youssef

Saudi Pharm J 2010 Jan 6;18(1):45-9. Epub 2010 Jan 6.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry, University of Alexandria, El-Messalah, Alexandria 21521, Egypt.

A sensitive first derivative spectrofluorimetric method ((1)D-spectrofluorimetry) was developed for the determination of mirtazapine. Calibration graph for mirtazapine determination was established using the first derivative amplitudes of the mirtazapine emission spectrum (λ ex = 314 nm) in 0.1 M sulphuric acid measured at 375-435 nm from peak to peak, as the analytical signals. Read More

View Article
January 2010
17 Reads
1.00 Impact Factor