Cortex 2016 Apr 23;77:24-37. Epub 2016 Jan 23.
Department of Paediatric and Adult Movement Disorders and Neuropsychiatry, Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Germany.
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J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012 Oct 28;83(10):975-8. Epub 2012 Jul 28.
Movement Disorders Research Group, Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.
Background: Despite the common notion that premonitory urges facilitate tic inhibition, no studies have investigated this question systematically. We examined the relation of the trait of premonitory urges with tics and tic suppression. We hypothesised that patients with more urges would be more efficient at inhibiting tics. Read More
Mov Disord 2015 Aug 16;30(9):1198-202. Epub 2015 Apr 16.
Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
Background: A contribution of aberrant interoceptive awareness to the perception of premonitory urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) has been hypothesized.
Methods: We assessed interoceptive awareness in 19 adults with GTS and 25 age-matched healthy controls using the heartbeat counting task. We also used multiple regression to explore whether the severity of premonitory urges was predicted by interoceptive awareness or severity of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Read More
Neuropsychologia 2014 Dec 14;65:297-301. Epub 2014 Aug 14.
Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) resemble fragments of normal motor behaviour but appear in an intrusive, repetitive and context-inappropriate manner. Although tics can be voluntarily inhibited on demand, the neural correlates of this process remain unclear. 14 GTS adults without relevant comorbidities participated in this study. Read More
Behav Modif 2014 Mar 21;38(2):276-96. Epub 2014 Apr 21.
Texas A&M University, College Station, USA
Tourette syndrome (TS) is marked by the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics that are usually accompanied by aversive sensory experiences called "premonitory urges." Phenomenological accounts suggest that these urges occur before tics and diminish following their occurrence. This has led some to suggest that tics are negatively reinforced by removal of premonitory urges. Read More