Search our Database of Scientific Publications and Authors

I’m looking for a

    Details and Download Full Text PDF:
    Temporal relationship between premonitory urges and tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Cortex 2016 Apr 23;77:24-37. Epub 2016 Jan 23.
    Department of Paediatric and Adult Movement Disorders and Neuropsychiatry, Institute of Neurogenetics, University of Lübeck, Germany.
    Premonitory urges are a cardinal feature in Tourette syndrome and are commonly viewed as the driving force of tics, building up before and subsiding after the execution of tics. Although the urge-tic interplay is one of the most preeminent features in Tourette syndrome, the temporal relationship between tics and urges has never been examined experimentally, mainly due to the lack of an appropriate assessment tool. We investigated the temporal relationship between urge intensity and tics in 17 Tourette patients and between urge intensity and eye blinks in 16 healthy controls in a free ticcing/blinking condition and a tic/blink suppression condition. For this purpose, an urge assessment tool was developed that allows real-time monitoring and quantification of urge intensity. Compared to free ticcing/blinking, urge intensity was higher during the suppression condition in both Tourette patients and healthy controls, while tics and blinks occurred less frequently. The data show that urge intensity increases prior to tics and decreases after tics in a time window of approximately ±10 sec. Tic suppression had a significant effect on the shape of the urge distribution around tics and led to a decrease in the size of the correlation between urge intensity and tics, indicating that tic suppression led to a de-coupling of tics and urges. In healthy controls, urges to blink were highly associated with eye blink execution, albeit in a narrower time frame (∼±5 sec). Blink suppression had a similar effect on the urge distribution associated with eye blinks as tic suppression had on the urge to tic in Tourette patients. These results corroborate the negative reinforcement model, which proposes that tics are associated with a relief in urges, thereby perpetuating ticcing behaviour. This study also documents similarities and differences between urges to act in healthy controls and urges to tic in Tourette syndrome.
    PDF Download - Full Text Link
    ( Please be advised that this article is hosted on an external website not affiliated with PubFacts.com)
    Source Status
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2016.01.008DOI ListingPossible

    Similar Publications

    Are premonitory urges a prerequisite of tic inhibition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome?
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012 Oct 28;83(10):975-8. Epub 2012 Jul 28.
    Movement Disorders Research Group, Department of Neurology, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistr 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.
    Background: Despite the common notion that premonitory urges facilitate tic inhibition, no studies have investigated this question systematically. We examined the relation of the trait of premonitory urges with tics and tic suppression. We hypothesised that patients with more urges would be more efficient at inhibiting tics. Read More
    Premonitory urge to tic in Tourette's is associated with interoceptive awareness.
    Mov Disord 2015 Aug 16;30(9):1198-202. Epub 2015 Apr 16.
    Sobell Department of Motor Neuroscience and Movement Disorders, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Background: A contribution of aberrant interoceptive awareness to the perception of premonitory urges in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) has been hypothesized.

    Methods: We assessed interoceptive awareness in 19 adults with GTS and 25 age-matched healthy controls using the heartbeat counting task. We also used multiple regression to explore whether the severity of premonitory urges was predicted by interoceptive awareness or severity of tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Read More
    The neural correlates of tic inhibition in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.
    Neuropsychologia 2014 Dec 14;65:297-301. Epub 2014 Aug 14.
    Center for Lifespan Psychology, Max Planck Institute for Human Development, Lentzeallee 94, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
    Tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) resemble fragments of normal motor behaviour but appear in an intrusive, repetitive and context-inappropriate manner. Although tics can be voluntarily inhibited on demand, the neural correlates of this process remain unclear. 14 GTS adults without relevant comorbidities participated in this study. Read More
    Negative Reinforcement and Premonitory Urges in Youth With Tourette Syndrome: An Experimental Evaluation.
    Behav Modif 2014 Mar 21;38(2):276-96. Epub 2014 Apr 21.
    Texas A&M University, College Station, USA
    Tourette syndrome (TS) is marked by the chronic presence of motor and vocal tics that are usually accompanied by aversive sensory experiences called "premonitory urges." Phenomenological accounts suggest that these urges occur before tics and diminish following their occurrence. This has led some to suggest that tics are negatively reinforced by removal of premonitory urges. Read More