JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2016 Mar 17;9(3):230-9. Epub 2016 Feb 17.
Department of Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Faculty of Medicine, University of Trondheim, Trondheim, Norway.
Objectives: This study assessed the prevalence and associated risk factors for valvular dysfunction (VD) observed in adult lymphoma survivors (LS) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT), and to determine whether anthracycline-containing chemotherapy (ACCT) alone in these patients is associated with VD.
Background: The prevalence of and risk factors for VD in LS after auto-HCT is unknown. Anthracyclines may induce heart failure, but any association with VD is not well-defined.
Methods: This national cross-sectional study included all adult LS receiving auto-HCT from 1987 to 2008 in Norway. VD was defined by echocardiography as either more than mild regurgitation or any stenosis. Observations in LS were compared with a healthy age- and gender-matched (1:1) control group.
Results: In total, 274 LS (69% of all eligible) participated. Mean age was 56 ± 12 years, mean follow-up time after lymphoma diagnosis was 13 ± 6 years, and 62% of participants were males. Mean cumulative anthracycline dosage was 316 ± 111 mg/m(2), and 35% had received radiation therapy involving the heart (cardiac-RT). VD was observed in 22.3% of the LS. Severe VD was rare (n = 9; 3.3% of all LS) and mainly aortic stenosis (n = 7). We observed VD in 16.7% of LS treated with ACCT alone (n = 177), corresponding with a 3-fold increased VD risk (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 5.8; p = 0.002) compared with controls. Furthermore, the presence of aortic valve degeneration was increased in the LS after ACCT alone compared with controls (13.0% vs. 2.9%; p < 0.001). Female sex, age >50 years at lymphoma diagnosis, ≥3 lines of chemotherapy before auto-HCT, and cardiac-RT >30 Gy were identified as independent risk factors for VD in the LS.
Conclusions: In LS, ACCT alone was significantly associated with VD and related to valvular degeneration. Overall, predominantly moderate VD was prevalent in LS, and longer observation time is needed to clarify the clinical significance of this finding.