Neurology 2016 Feb 6;86(5):446-53. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
From The Genetic Institute (O.G., O.N., M.G.-W., A.O.-U.) and the Neuromuscular Service, Department of Neurology (B.N., V.E.D.), Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Israel; the Laboratory of Neurogenetics (B.J.T., A.E.R.), National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD; and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine (V.E.D., A.O.-U.), Tel Aviv University, Israel.
Objective: To detect genetic variants underlying familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).
Methods: We analyzed 2 founder Jewish populations of Moroccan and Ashkenazi origins and ethnic matched controls. Exome sequencing of 2 sisters with ALS from Morocco was followed by genotyping the identified causative null mutation in 379 unrelated patients with ALS and 1,000 controls. The shared risk haplotype was characterized using whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array.
Results: We identified 5 unrelated patients with ALS homozygous for the null 691_692insAG mutation in the optineurin gene (OPTN), accounting for 5.8% of ALS of Moroccan origin and 0.3% of Ashkenazi. We also identified a high frequency of heterozygous carriers among patients with ALS, 8.7% and 2.9%, respectively, compared to 0.75% and 1.0% in controls. The risk of carriers for ALS was significantly increased, with odds ratio of 13.46 and 2.97 in Moroccan and Ashkenazi Jews, respectively. We determined that 691_692insAG is a founder mutation in the tested populations with a minimal risk haplotype of 58.5 Kb, encompassing the entire OPTN gene.
Conclusions: Our data show that OPTN 691_692insAG mutation is a founder mutation in Moroccan and Ashkenazi Jews. This mutation causes autosomal recessive ALS and significantly increases the risk to develop the disease in heterozygous carriers, suggesting both a recessive mode of inheritance and a dominant with incomplete penetrance. These data emphasize the important role of OPTN in ALS pathogenesis, and demonstrate the complex genetics of ALS, as the same mutation leads to different phenotypes and appears in 2 patterns of inheritance.