PLoS One 2015 28;10(12):e0145088. Epub 2015 Dec 28.
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Objective: The optimal way to measure antimicrobial use in hospital populations, as a complement to surveillance of resistance is still unclear. Using respiratory isolates and antimicrobial prescriptions of nine intensive care units (ICUs), this study aimed to identify the indicator of antimicrobial use that predicted prevalence and incidence rates of resistance with the best accuracy.
Methods: Retrospective cohort study including all patients admitted to three neonatal (NICU), two pediatric (PICU) and four adult ICUs between April 2006 and March 2010. Ten different resistance/antimicrobial use combinations were studied. After adjustment for ICU type, indicators of antimicrobial use were successively tested in regression models, to predict resistance prevalence and incidence rates, per 4-week time period, per ICU. Binomial regression and Poisson regression were used to model prevalence and incidence rates, respectively. Multiplicative and additive models were tested, as well as no time lag and a one 4-week-period time lag. For each model, the mean absolute error (MAE) in prediction of resistance was computed. The most accurate indicator was compared to other indicators using t-tests.
Results: Results for all indicators were equivalent, except for 1/20 scenarios studied. In this scenario, where prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas sp. was predicted with carbapenem use, recommended daily doses per 100 admissions were less accurate than courses per 100 patient-days (p = 0.0006).
Conclusions: A single best indicator to predict antimicrobial resistance might not exist. Feasibility considerations such as ease of computation or potential external comparisons could be decisive in the choice of an indicator for surveillance of healthcare antimicrobial use.