Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2016 18;16(3):303-11. Epub 2016 Feb 18.
a Division of Urology , Duke University Medical Center , Durham , NC , USA.
Multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) is widely used in the detection and characterization of clinically- significant prostate cancer. MRI-TRUS (trans-rectal ultrasound) fusion biopsy is an in-office procedure that promises to empower urologists to successfully target these MRI-visible lesions for histological confirmation. We describe the moving parts in the process and discuss methods to optimize biopsy outcomes. mpMRI is highly technical and reader-dependent. The acquisition of US images to generate a valid 3D US model and subsequent registration and fusion requires the urologist to attain equilibrium of probe position and pressure to achieve maximum registration accuracy. Environmental, medical and engineering measures can be undertaken to improve targeting accuracy. The art and skill of 'hitting' a visual target involves real-time recognition and adjustment for potential errors/ mis-registration in the fusion guide. A multi-disciplinary team effort is critical to improve all steps of the procedure.