J Virol 2016 02 18;90(3):1321-32. Epub 2015 Nov 18.
Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.
Unlabelled: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) administered shortly after human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can suppress viremia and limit seeding of the viral reservoir, but lifelong treatment is required for the majority of patients. Highly potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) can reduce plasma viremia when administered during chronic HIV-1 infection, but the therapeutic potential of these antibodies during acute infection is unknown. We tested the ability of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein-specific broadly neutralizing MAbs to suppress acute simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) replication in rhesus macaques. Four groups of macaques were infected with SHIV-SF162P3 and received (i) the CD4-binding-site MAb VRC01; (ii) a combination of a more potent clonal relative of VRC01 (VRC07-523) and a V3 glycan-dependent MAb (PGT121); (iii) daily cART, all on day 10, just prior to expected peak plasma viremia; or (iv) no treatment. Daily cART was initiated 11 days after MAb administration and was continued for 13 weeks in all treated animals. Over a period of 11 days after a single administration, MAb treatment significantly reduced peak viremia, accelerated the decay slope, and reduced total viral replication compared to untreated controls. Proviral DNA in lymph node CD4 T cells was also diminished after treatment with the dual MAb. These data demonstrate the virological effect of potent MAbs and support future clinical trials that investigate HIV-1-neutralizing MAbs as adjunctive therapy with cART during acute HIV-1 infection.
Importance: Treatment of chronic HIV-1 infection with potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 MAbs has been shown to significantly reduce plasma viremia. However, the antiviral effect of MAb treatment during acute HIV-1 infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that MAbs targeting the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein both suppress acute SHIV plasma viremia and limit CD4 T cell-associated viral DNA. These findings provide support for clinical trials of MAbs as adjunctive therapy with antiretroviral therapy during acute HIV-1 infection.