Allelic Mutations of KITLG, Encoding KIT Ligand, Cause Asymmetric and Unilateral Hearing Loss and Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Nov 29;97(5):647-60. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Hearing & Genes Division, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, the Netherlands; The Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, the Netherlands; Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen 6525GA, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Linkage analysis combined with whole-exome sequencing in a large family with congenital and stable non-syndromic unilateral and asymmetric hearing loss (NS-UHL/AHL) revealed a heterozygous truncating mutation, c.286_303delinsT (p.Ser96Ter), in KITLG. This mutation co-segregated with NS-UHL/AHL as a dominant trait with reduced penetrance. By screening a panel of probands with NS-UHL/AHL, we found an additional mutation, c.200_202del (p.His67_Cys68delinsArg). In vitro studies revealed that the p.His67_Cys68delinsArg transmembrane isoform of KITLG is not detectable at the cell membrane, supporting pathogenicity. KITLG encodes a ligand for the KIT receptor. Also, KITLG-KIT signaling and MITF are suggested to mutually interact in melanocyte development. Because mutations in MITF are causative of Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2), we screened KITLG in suspected WS2-affected probands. A heterozygous missense mutation, c.310C>G (p.Leu104Val), that segregated with WS2 was identified in a small family. In vitro studies revealed that the p.Leu104Val transmembrane isoform of KITLG is located at the cell membrane, as is wild-type KITLG. However, in culture media of transfected cells, the p.Leu104Val soluble isoform of KITLG was reduced, and no soluble p.His67_Cys68delinsArg and p.Ser96Ter KITLG could be detected. These data suggest that mutations in KITLG associated with NS-UHL/AHL have a loss-of-function effect. We speculate that the mechanism of the mutation underlying WS2 and leading to membrane incorporation and reduced secretion of KITLG occurs via a dominant-negative or gain-of-function effect. Our study unveils different phenotypes associated with KITLG, previously associated with pigmentation abnormalities, and will thereby improve the genetic counseling given to individuals with KITLG variants.

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http://www.cell.com/ajhg/pdf/S0002-9297(15)00400-0.pdf
Web Search
http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S000292971500400
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.09.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4667106PMC
November 2015

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