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    Factors associated with geographic tongue and fissured tongue.

    Acta Odontol Scand 2016 18;74(3):210-6. Epub 2015 Sep 18.
    a Department of Oral Medicine and Pathology , Institute of Odontology, the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg , Sweden.
    Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association of systemic diseases, use of medications, allergies and tobacco habits with geographic tongue (GT) and fissured tongue (FT) lesions. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the clinical characteristics of tongue lesions and to compare the overall results for referred and non-referred patients.

    Methodology: Non-referred patients with GT (GTgp; n = 130) and FT (FTgp; n = 62) were examined by general practitioners (gp) and compared to a control group without oral mucosal lesions (C; n = 1029). Referred patients with GT (GTs; n = 166) and FT (FTs; n = 15) were examined by oral medicine specialists (s) and compared to GTgp and FTgp. Statistical analyses were performed using unpaired t-test or Fisher's exact test. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to control for age and gender as confounders.

    Results: Compared to the C group, GTgp patients used more anti-hypertensive medications and Swedish snus (p < 0.01). The GTgp group consisted of older males (p < 0.001) compared to C. Compared to the GTgp group, the GTs group was younger, more likely to have symptomatic lesions (p < 0.0001) and comprised of more females. Among the groups examined, FT patients had the highest mean age.

    Conclusion: This study identified an association between GT and anti-hypertensive medications, as well as the use of Swedish snus. It also found differences in the activities and symptoms of the lesions between referred patients and their counterparts who were seen in general dental practice; these parameters influenced the results when these conditions were taken into account.
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    http://www.researchgate.net/publication/282043458_Factors_as
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    http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/00016357.2015.10
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