Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2015 Dec 6;178:76-85. Epub 2015 Aug 6.
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Xiphophorus Genetic Stock Center, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA.
In both Xiphophorus fishes and humans, males are reported to have a higher incidence of melanoma than females. To better understand sex-specific differences in the molecular genetic response to UVB, we performed RNA-Seq experiments in skin of female and male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following UVB doses of 8 or 16kJ/m(2) exposure. Male X. maculatus differentially express a significantly larger number of transcripts following exposure to 16kJ/m(2) UVB (1293 genes) compared to 8kJ/m(2) UVB (324 genes). Female skin showed differential gene expression in a larger number of transcripts following 8kJ/m(2) UVB (765) than did males; however, both females and males showed similar numbers of differentially expressed genes at 16kJ/m(2) UVB (1167 and1293, respectively). Although most modulated transcripts after UVB exposure represented the same dominant pathways in both females and males (e.g., DNA repair, circadian rhythm, and fatty acid biosynthesis), we identified genes in several pathways that exhibited opposite modulation in female vs. male skin (e.g., synaptic development, cell differentiation, wound healing, and glucose metabolism). The oppositely modulated genes appear related through uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) that is involved with the regulation of fatty acid oxidation and serves to balance glucose and lipid metabolism. Overall, these results identify gender-specific differences in UVB-induced genetic profiles in the skin of females and males and show female and male X. maculatus respond to UVB differently through pathways involved in reactive oxygen species, wound healing, and energy homeostasis.