Exp Physiol 2016 Apr 27;101(4):478-81. Epub 2015 Aug 27.
Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
New Findings: What is the topic of this review? This review covers recent findings highlighting roles for renal and vascular sensory receptors that modify blood pressure control in response to changes in gut microbial metabolites. What advances does it highlight? This review highlights the novel roles that G-protein-coupled receptor 41 and olfactory receptor 78 play in blood pressure regulation. The gut microbiota have recently been recognized as an important component of host physiology and pathophysiology. Our recent studies have shown that a subset of gut microbial metabolites, known as short-chain fatty acids, act as ligands for host G-protein-coupled receptors (G-protein-coupled receptor 41 and olfactory receptor 78). Short-chain fatty acid-mediated activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 41 and olfactory receptor 78 modulates blood pressure control, both by modulating renin secretion and by modulating vascular tone directly. Further studies are needed in order to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanism by which microbiota and microbial metabolites modulate host physiology and their potential implications in health and disease.