Background: Preoperative imaging with computed tomography (CT) scans can be useful in preoperative planning. We hypothesized that CT measurements of ventral hernia defect size and abdominal wall thickness (AWT) would correlate with postoperative complications and need for complex abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR).Materials And Methods: Patients who underwent open ventral hernia repair and had preoperative abdominal CT imagining were identified from an institutional hernia-specific surgery outcomes database at our tertiary referral hernia center. Grade III and IV hernias and biologic mesh cases were excluded. CT measures of defect size and AWT were analyzed and correlated to complications and the need for AWR techniques using univariate, multivariate, and principal component (PC) analyses. PC1 and PC2 used five AWT measures, hernia defect width, and body mass index to create a new component variable.Results: There were 151 open ventral hernia repairs included in the study. Preoperative findings included 37.7% male; age 55.3 ± 12.5 years; body mass index (BMI) 33.3 ± 7.8 kg/m(2); 60.3% were recurrent hernias with average defect width 8.5 ± 5.0 cm and area 178.3 ± 214 cm(2); AWT at umbilicus 3.5 ± 1.8 cm; and AWT at pubis 7.0 ± 3.2. Component separation was performed in 24.0% of patients and panniculectomy in 34.4%. Wound complications occurred in 13.3% patients, and 2.7% had hernia recurrence. Increasing defect width, length, and area as well as select AWT measurements were associated with increased need for component separation, concomitant panniculectomy, and higher rates of wound and total complications (all P < 0.05). Using multivariate regression, PC1 was associated with wound complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.16); PC2 (hernia defect width) was associated with the need for component separation (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.30). Hernia recurrence was not predicted by AWT or defect size (OR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.87-1.15).Conclusions: Preoperative CT measurements of hernia defects and AWT predict wound complications and the need for complex AWR techniques. Obtaining preoperative CT imaging should be a consideration in preoperative planning and may help with patient counseling.