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    The relationships between serum C-reactive protein level and risk and progression of coronary and carotid atherosclerosis.
    Semin Vasc Surg 2014 Dec 6;27(3-4):138-42. Epub 2015 Apr 6.
    Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, West Virginia University, Charleston Division, 1002 Louden Heights, Charleston, WV 25314.
    The acute-phase protein, C-reactive protein (CRP), was discovered >80 years ago and has been used clinically as a biomarker of inflammation. The measurement of serum CRP levels has proven useful to determine disease progression and the effectiveness of treatments for a number of medical conditions (eg, cancer, infection, and inflammation). During the last 20 years, multiple studies have shown an increased CRP level to be an indicator of risk for coronary artery disease and to be associated with progression of atherosclerotic carotid occlusive disease. In this review, the most recent associations of CRP with cardiovascular disease in both coronary and carotid artery circulations are analyzed. It is imperative that the vascular surgeon and other vascular specialists recognize the relationship between serum CRP levels and atherosclerotic disease to identify at-risk patient populations, screen for occlusive disease severity, and employ this biomarker in patient counseling.

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    Association of systemic inflammatory activity with coronary and carotid atherosclerosis in the very elderly.
    Atherosclerosis 2011 May 2;216(1):212-6. Epub 2011 Feb 2.
    University of Brasilia Medical School, Brasília, DF, Brazil.
    Objective: To verify the existence of association between plasma levels of pro- or anti-inflammatory mediators and atherosclerotic burden at coronary and carotid arteries in individuals aged of 80 or more years old.

    Methods: Healthy individuals aged between 80 and 102 years old (n = 178) underwent evaluation of plasma cytokines and acute phase proteins, intima-media thickness (IMT) and presence of plaques in carotid arteries by ultrasound and coronary artery calcification (CAC) by cardiac computed tomography.

    Results: There was no association between CAC and carotid plaques (p = 0. Read More
    Association of serum total bilirubin level with severity of coronary atherosclerosis is linked to systemic inflammation.
    Atherosclerosis 2015 May 2;240(1):110-4. Epub 2015 Mar 2.
    Gazi University Medical Faculty, Department of Cardiology, Ankara, Turkey.
    Objective: Although cardiovascular protective action of bilirubin has been attributed to its antioxidant effect, there was scarce data regarding the anti-inflammatory properties. Herein, we aimed to assess the relationship between serum total bilirubin level and severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) in association with the direct inflammatory marker such as C-reactive protein (CRP), the other indirect markers included in inflammation process such as neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and red cell distribution width (RDW) in patients with stable CAD.

    Methods: Angiographic data of 1501 patients were analyzed in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Read More
    The roles of a novel inflammatory neopterin in subjects with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease.
    Int Immunopharmacol 2015 Feb 25;24(2):169-172. Epub 2014 Nov 25.
    Department of Clinical Laboratory, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.
    Coronary atherosclerotic heart disease (CHD) is currently regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease. The inflammatory cytokine neopterin (NP) is a new predictor of the stable type of atherosclerotic plaque, and this study focused on the relationship between neopterin, Gensini score and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) to explore the important role of neopterin in patients with CHD. This study enrolled 176 patients into the control group and 266 patients into the experimental group. Read More
    C-reactive protein is an independent predictor of the rate of increase in early carotid atherosclerosis.
    Circulation 2001 Jul;104(1):63-7
    Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.
    Background: An elevated plasma concentration of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. However, there have been no longitudinal studies of the relations between development of atherosclerotic lesions and hs-CRP concentrations. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether increased hs-CRP concentrations result in the development of atherosclerosis. Read More