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    Lysophosphatidylcholine promotes SREBP-2 activation via rapid cholesterol efflux and SREBP-2-independent cytokine release in human endothelial cells.
    J Biochem 2015 Oct 21;158(4):331-8. Epub 2015 May 21.
    Department of Medical Life Systems, Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321, Japan; and
    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and oxysterols which are major components in oxidized low-density lipoprotein have been shown to possess an opposite effect on the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) target genes in endothelial cells. In this study, we aimed at elucidating the mechanisms of activation of SREBP-2 by LPC and evaluating the effects of LPC and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) on the release of inflammatory cytokines. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with LPC or oxysterols including 25-HC. LPC activated SREBP-2 within 15 min, resulting in induction of expression of SREBP-2 target genes which were involved in intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. The rapid activation of SREBP-2 was caused by enhanced efflux of intracellular cholesterol, which was evaluated using (14)C-acetate. The LPC-induced activation of SREBP-2 was inhibited by addition of 25-HC. In contrast, both LPC and 25-HC increased release of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8, respectively and additively. In conclusion, LPC activated SREBP-2 via enhancement of cholesterol efflux, which was suppressed by 25-HC. The release of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-8 in endothelial cells was SREBP-2-independent. LPC and 25-HC may act competitively in cholesterol homeostasis but additively in inflammatory cytokine release.

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