J Clin Diagn Res 2015 Mar 1;9(3):OD05-7. Epub 2015 Mar 1.
Resident, Department of General Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, SBV University , Pillayarkuppam, Puducherry, India .
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Lupus 2010 Dec 27;19(14):1659-61. Epub 2010 Jul 27.
Biomedicine, University City of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare disease that includes clinical and laboratorial manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma and polymyositis that is associated with high titers of anti-U1RNP antibodies. In general, muscle involvement is subclinical, usually appearing as an increase in muscle enzyme levels that tends to be a characteristic of the initial phases of the disease. Severe clinical muscle weakness is not observed in this disease. Read More
Cureus 2017 Jun 5;9(6):e1313. Epub 2017 Jun 5.
Department of Medicine, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center Karachi Pakistan.
Mixed connective tissue disorder (MCTD) is a multisystem disease with overlapping features of other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), myositis, rheumatoid arthritis, and scleroderma. MCTD presents with a distinctive antibody in serum known as U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP). MCTD is quite rare as compared to other connective tissue disorders like SLE, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis, and polymyositis. Read More
Adv Exp Med Biol 1999 ;455:85-92
Department of Dermatology, Warsaw School of Medicine, Poland.
The most common scleroderma overlap syndromes are mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), scleromyositis and synthetase syndrome. There is controversy concerning MCTD as a separate entity due to heterogeneous clinical manifestations, not infrequent transformation into definite CTD and various classification criteria. Our study of 94 adult patients and 20 children, classified according to the criteria of Alarcon-Segovia, and especially a 5, 9-year follow-up showed transformation into SLE or SSc in over 20% of patients, less frequently than reported by others, whereas over half of the cases remained undifferentiated CTD. Read More
Arerugi 1990 Jun;39(6):542-7
Second Department of Internal Medicine, Saitama Medical School.
We encountered a patient who developed an overlap syndrome of progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), polymyositis (PM) and Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) while we were treating her for mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). This 42-year-old woman had been photosensitive since 18 years of age. In 1986, Raynaud's phenomenon, swollen hands and arthralgia appeared; therefore, we started to treat this patient based on a diagnosis of MCTD. Read More