Vasc Med 2015 Aug 23;20(4):326-31. Epub 2015 Apr 23.
Division of Vascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA
The cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to coronary calcification have been extensively studied while those related to tibial artery calcium are less well defined. We sought to determine the associations between cardiovascular risk factors and tibial artery calcification in a cohort of patients with and without significant peripheral atherosclerosis. A total of 222 patients without end-stage renal disease were identified in a prospectively maintained database containing tibial artery calcification (TAC) scores, and demographic, cardiovascular, and biochemical risk factor information. Patients with prevalent tibial artery calcification were more likely to be older, male, and have a history positive for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and tobacco use. Patients with an abnormal ankle-brachial index (ABI) or symptoms of peripheral artery disease (PAD) were also more likely to have higher calcium values. In analyses using multivariable logistic regression, age, gender, diabetes, and tobacco use maintained their association with prevalent tibial calcification while hypertension, hyperlipidemia and body mass index did not. These associations remained when PAD was added to the model. After adjusting for relevant cardiovascular risk factors, we found that only abnormal ABI, current PAD symptoms, and lower serum calcium values were associated with the presence of tibial artery calcification. In conclusion, in patients without end-stage renal disease, tibial artery calcification has risk factors that are similar but not identical to those for coronary artery calcification and peripheral atherosclerosis.