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    Cavitary penetration of levofloxacin among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
    Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 16;59(6):3149-55. Epub 2015 Mar 16.
    Division of Infectious Diseases Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Departments of Epidemiology and Global Health, Emory Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
    A better understanding of second-line drug (SLD) pharmacokinetics, including cavitary penetration, may help optimize SLD dosing. Patients with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) undergoing adjunctive surgery were enrolled in Tbilisi, Georgia. Serum was obtained at 0, 1, 4, and 8 h and at the time of cavitary removal to measure levofloxacin concentrations. After surgery, microdialysis was performed using the ex vivo cavity, and levofloxacin concentrations in the collected dialysate fluid were measured. Noncompartmental analysis was performed, and a cavitary-to-serum levofloxacin concentration ratio was calculated. Twelve patients received levofloxacin for a median of 373 days before surgery (median dose, 11.8 mg/kg). The median levofloxacin concentration in serum (Cmax) was 6.5 μg/ml, and it was <2 μg/ml in 3 (25%) patients. Among 11 patients with complete data, the median cavitary concentration of levofloxacin was 4.36 μg/ml (range, 0.46 to 8.82). The median cavitary/serum levofloxacin ratio was 1.33 (range, 0.63 to 2.36), and 7 patients (64%) had a ratio of >1. There was a significant correlation between serum and cavitary concentrations (r = 0.71; P = 0.01). Levofloxacin had excellent penetration into chronic cavitary TB lesions, and there was a good correlation between serum and cavitary concentrations. Optimizing serum concentrations will help ensure optimal cavitary concentrations of levofloxacin, which may enhance treatment outcomes.

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