Med Eng Phys 2015 Apr 9;37(4):431-45. Epub 2015 Mar 9.
Istanbul University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Oral Implantology, Istanbul, Turkey.
Resorption following tooth loss and poor bone quality affect the success of implants in the anterior maxilla. Inappropriate planning can cause implant loss and aesthetics problems that are difficult to resolve. There is a limited literature on the optimum number and location of implants in anterior maxilla for fabricating fixed prosthesis in biomechanical terms. This study investigated the effect of dental implant localizations in anterior maxilla on the strain values around implants using a three dimensional finite elements analysis method. Obtained strain values were compared to the data in Frost's mechanostat theory. The entire totally edentulous maxilla was modeled using computer tomography images and five models were prepared representing different implant localizations. The distribution of implants in the models was as follows: two canines in the first model, two canines and one central incisor in the second model, two canines and central incisor in the third model, two canines and one lateral incisor in the fourth model and two canines and two lateral incisors in the fifth model. Anatomic abutments with a gingival height of 2 mm and angle of 15° were used as the abutments to fabricate one piece cemented metal fused to porcelain restoration. A chewing strength of 100 N was applied to the cingulum of all crowns at a 45° angle. Maximum strain values in all models were measured in cortical bone in implant necks. The highest strain value was measured in the first model at the cortical bone area (3037 microstrain). Except the first model, all models showed micro strain values within 1000-3000 microstrain. The fifth model was the least risky method in biomechanical terms. The results of this study should be compared with different clinical scenarios (for example different implant designs and sizes). Due to the limitations of three-dimensional finite elements analysis studies, the findings of the study need to be supported by clinical studies.