Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 May 17;59(5):2625-35. Epub 2015 Feb 17.
Departments of Infectious Diseases and Hematology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine, Kumamoto, Japan Experimental Retrovirology Section, HIV and AIDS Malignancy Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan
We report here that GRL-0739, a novel nonpeptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor containing a tricycle (cyclohexyl-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane [THF]) and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC50], 0.0019 to 0.0036 μM), with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50], 21.0 μM). GRL-0739 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants selected by concentrations of up to 5 μM ritonavir or atazanavir (EC50, 0.035 to 0.058 μM). GRL-0739 was also highly active against multidrug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who no longer responded to existing antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy, as well as against the HIV-2ROD variant. The development of resistance against GRL-0739 was substantially delayed compared to that of amprenavir (APV). The effects of the nonspecific binding of human serum proteins on the anti-HIV-1 activity of GRL-0739 were insignificant. In addition, GRL-0739 showed a desirable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property, as assessed using a novel in vitro blood-brain barrier model. Molecular modeling demonstrated that the tricyclic ring and methoxybenzene of GRL-0739 have a larger surface and make greater van der Waals contacts with protease than in the case of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-0739 has desirable features as a compound with good CNS-penetrating capability for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multidrug-resistant HIV-1 variants and that the newly generated cyclohexyl-bis-THF moiety with methoxybenzene confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency in the design of novel protease inhibitors with greater CNS penetration profiles.