Clin Perinatol 2015 Mar 20;42(1):77-103, viii. Epub 2014 Dec 20.
Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease, New York-Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital, 622 West 168th Street, PH-471, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Download full-text PDF
Curr Womens Health Rep 2002 Aug;2(4):253-8
Department of OB/GYN, Phoenix Integrated Residency in OB/GYN, Maricopa Medical Center, 2601 E. Roosevelt, Phoenix, AZ 85008, USA. E mail:
Perinatal infections account for 2% to 3% of all congenital anomalies. TORCH, which includes Toxoplasmosis, Other (syphilis, varicella-zoster, parvovirus B19), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Herpes infections, are some of the most common infections associated with congenital anomalies. Most of the TORCH infections cause mild maternal morbidity, but have serious fetal consequences, and treatment of maternal infection frequently has no impact on fetal outcome. Read More
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2004 Nov;39(11):725-8
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2016 09 31;14(9):845-61. Epub 2016 Jul 31.
a Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM) , Maputo , Mozambique.
Introduction: Congenital and perinatal infections are a leading cause of neonatal and infant morbidity and mortality. Maternal screening, vaccines or treatment where available, constitute effective prevention strategies to reduce the burden of these diseases. Data on the burden of congenital and perinatal infections are very limited for low and middle-income regions. Read More
Neurol Clin 1994 Aug;12(3):541-64
Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
This article concentrates primarily on infections of viral origin, although numerous microorganisms can infect the fetal and newborn brain (see Tables 1 and 2). Intrauterine infections occur most often for HIV, CMV and rubella, whereas HSV is preferentially transmitted intrapartum. In the last decade, changes in the epidemiology of some of the neonatal infections have occurred largely because of the AIDS epidemic. Read More