J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015 Apr 14;135(4):988-97.e6. Epub 2015 Jan 14.
Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency (CCI), University Medical Center Freiburg and the University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany. Electronic address:
Background: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is usually well controlled with immunoglobulin substitution and immunomodulatory drugs. A subgroup of patients has a complicated disease course with high mortality. For these patients, investigation of more invasive, potentially curative treatments, such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), is warranted.
Objective: We sought to define the outcomes of HSCT for patients with CVID.
Methods: Retrospective data were collected from 14 centers worldwide on patients with CVID receiving HSCT between 1993 and 2012.
Results: Twenty-five patients with CVID, which was defined according to international criteria, aged 8 to 50 years at the time of transplantation were included in the study. The indication for HSCT was immunologic dysregulation in the majority of patients. The overall survival rate was 48%, and the survival rate for patients undergoing transplantation for lymphoma was 83%. The major causes of death were treatment-refractory graft-versus-host disease accompanied by poor immune reconstitution and infectious complications. Immunoglobulin substitution was stopped in 50% of surviving patients. In 92% of surviving patients, the condition constituting the indication for HSCT resolved.
Conclusion: This multicenter study demonstrated that HSCT in patients with CVID was beneficial in most surviving patients; however, there was a high mortality associated with the procedure. Therefore this therapeutic approach should only be considered in carefully selected patients in whom there has been extensive characterization of the immunologic and/or genetic defect underlying the CVID diagnosis. Criteria for patient selection, refinement of the transplantation protocol, and timing are needed for an improved outcome.