Cancer Genet 2015 Jan-Feb;208(1-2):19-24. Epub 2014 Nov 21.
Department of Internal Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea; Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea. Electronic address:
The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project revealed that nearby or distantly located non-coding DNA regulates the expression of coding genes. RegulomeDB (http://regulome.stanford.edu) is a new database that can be used to predict whether a variant affects transcription factor binding and gene expression. We investigated the association between lung cancer risk and potentially functional polymorphisms of XRCC1 that were selected using RegulomeDB in a Korean population. A total of 185 polymorphisms of XRCC1 were evaluated using RegulomeDB. Strong evidence suggested that 10 polymorphisms, from among the 185, affected XRCC1 expression with scores of 1a-1f that were based on the RegulomeDB scoring system. The rs2854510 polymorphism was rare in Asians (minor allele frequency < 0.05). Eight polymorphisms were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD). The rs2854509 polymorphism, which was one of the 8 polymorphisms in LD, and rs7248167, which was not in the LD block, were genotyped in 610 lung cancer patients and 607 age- and sex-matched controls. Additionally, four polymorphisms of XRCC1 (rs25487, rs25489, rs1799782, and rs3213245), which were investigated with regard to their association with lung cancer risk in previous studies, were also genotyped. Two polymorphisms (rs2854509 and rs7248167) that were predicted to affect XRCC1 expression based on their RegulomeDB scores were not associated with lung cancer risk (P = 0.31 and 0.93, respectively). When stratified according to age, gender, smoking status, and tumor histology, the two polymorphisms of XRCC1 were not associated with lung cancer risk. Among the four polymorphisms that were previously studied, only rs25489 of XRCC1 was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (dominant model, adjusted odds ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.83, P = 0.002). Although RegulomeDB is an attractive tool for predicting the regulatory potential of variants, the two polymorphisms that were selected using RegulomeDB were not associated with lung cancer risk.