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    Exposure assessment of organophosphorus and organobromine flame retardants via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses.
    Chemosphere 2015 Mar 19;123:17-25. Epub 2014 Dec 19.
    Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, 1 Honjyo, Saga, Saga 840-8502, Japan. Electronic address:
    To assess the exposure of flame retardants (FRs) for school-children, organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) and organobromine flame retardants (BFRs) were determined in the indoor dust samples collected from elementary schools and domestic houses in Japan in 2009 and 2010. PFRs were detected in all the dust samples analyzed and the highest concentration of total PFRs was thousand-fold higher than that of BFRs. Among the PFRs, tris(butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP) showed the highest concentration with a median (med.) of 270,000 ng g(-1) dry weight (3700-5,500,000 ng g(-1) dry weight), followed by tris(methylphenyl)phosphate (TMPPs)>triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)=tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP)=tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP)=tris(2chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP)>ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP). Significantly higher concentrations of TBOEP, tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), TPHP, TMPPs, and total-PFRs were found in dust samples from elementary schools than from domestic houses. It might be due to that higher concentrations of TBOEP (as leveling agent) were detected from the floor polisher/wax products collected in those elementary schools. On the other hand, significantly higher concentrations of TCEP, TCIPPs, and total chloroalkyl-PFRs were found in domestic houses than in elementary schools. Exposure assessments of PFRs via indoor dust from elementary schools and domestic houses were conducted by calculating the hazard quotient (HQ). Among PFRs, HQs for TBOEP exceeded 1 (higher than reference dose: RfD) and its highest value was 1.9. To reduce the intake of TBOEP by school-children, it is recommended that the use of floor polisher/wax containing TBOEP be reduced in schools.

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