Int J Dermatol 2015 Mar 16;54(3):258-70. Epub 2014 Dec 16.
Department of Stomatology III, Faculty of Odontology, Complutense University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
Immune-mediated diseases frequently affect oral mucosa, which may often be the first site of clinical manifestation. In this review, we describe the most important oral lesions related to inflammatory disorders and present their management and novel therapies. The review is based on an open PubMed literature search from 1980 to 2012 with relevant keywords. Pemphigus vulgaris, oral lichen planus, cicatricial pemphigoid, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and linear IgA dermatosis are the immune-mediated diseases with oral manifestations discussed. Etiology is unknown in most of these diseases, but recently some of them have been found to share common genes. Modern treatment of these diseases is based on drugs that interfere along the pathogenic mechanisms instead of the still commonly used palliative measures. However, the immunomodulatory drugs may also cause oral side effects, complicating the clinical picture. Therefore, consulting dental or oral medicine specialists can be necessary in some cases with various immune-mediated diseases.