Lynch syndrome caused by germline PMS2 mutations: delineating the cancer risk.

J Clin Oncol 2015 Feb 15;33(4):319-25. Epub 2014 Dec 15.

Sanne W. ten Broeke, Carli M. Tops, Heleen M. van der Klift, Manon Suerink, Frederik J. Hes, Hans F. Vasen, Maartje Nielsen, and Juul T. Wijnen, Leiden University Medical Center; Hans F. Vasen, The Netherlands Foundation for the Detection of Hereditary Tumors, Leiden; Richard M. Brohet, Research Center Linnaeus Institute, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp; Mary E. Velthuizen and Tom G.W. Letteboer, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht; Encarna Gomez Garcia, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht; Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Arjen R. Mensenkamp, and Liesbeth Spruijt, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen; Fred H. Menko, Vrije Universiteit, University Medical Center; Theo A. van Os and Bert J.W. Redeker, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam; Rolf H. Sijmons and Yvonne J. Vos, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen; Anja Wagner, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Inge Bernstein, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg; Inge Bernstein, Danish Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer Registry, Hvidovre University Hospital Copenhagen, Denmark; Gabriel Capellá Munar, Hereditary Cancer Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology-Institut D'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge, l'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain; Annika Lindblom, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna; Pal Moller, Research Group Inherited Cancer, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; and Nils Rahner, Institute of Human Genetics, University of Dusseldorf, Dusseldorf, Germany.

Purpose: The clinical consequences of PMS2 germline mutations are poorly understood compared with other Lynch-associated mismatch repair gene (MMR) mutations. The aim of this European cohort study was to define the cancer risk faced by PMS2 mutation carriers.

Methods: Data were collected from 98 PMS2 families ascertained from family cancer clinics that included a total of 2,548 family members and 377 proven mutation carriers. To adjust for potential ascertainment bias, a modified segregation analysis model was used to calculate colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC) risks. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to estimate risks for other Lynch syndrome-associated cancers.

Results: The cumulative risk (CR) of CRC for male mutation carriers by age 70 years was 19%. The CR among female carriers was 11% for CRC and 12% for EC. The mean age of CRC development was 52 years, and there was a significant difference in mean age of CRC between the probands (mean, 47 years; range, 26 to 68 years) and other family members with a PMS2 mutation (mean, 58 years; range, 31 to 86 years; P < .001). Significant SIRs were observed for cancers of the small bowel, ovaries, breast, and renal pelvis.

Conclusion: CRC and EC risks were found to be markedly lower than those previously reported for the other MMR. However, these risks embody the isolated risk of carrying a PMS2 mutation, and it should be noted that we observed a substantial variation in cancer phenotype within and between families, suggesting the influence of genetic modifiers and lifestyle factors on cancer risks.

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