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    Differential expression of pentraxin 3 in neutrophils.
    Exp Mol Pathol 2015 Feb 20;98(1):33-40. Epub 2014 Nov 20.
    Department of Cellular Function, Division of Cellular and Molecular Pathology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata, Japan. Electronic address:
    Pentraxins belong to the superfamily of conserved proteins that are characterized by a cyclic multimeric structure. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a long pentraxin which can be produced by different cell types upon exposure to various inflammatory signals. Inside the neutrophil PTX3 is stored in form of granules localized in the cytoplasm. Neutrophilic granules are divided into three types: azurophilic (primary) granules, specific (secondary) granules and gelatinase (tertiary) granules. PTX3 has been considered to be localized in specific (secondary) granules. Immunofluorescent analyses using confocal laser microscopic examination were performed to clarify the localization of all three groups of granules within the cytoplasm of the mature neutrophils and neutrophils stimulated with IL-8. Furthermore, PTX3 was localized in primary granules of promyelocyte cell line HL-60. As a result, we suggest that PTX3 is localized not only in specific granules, but is also partly expressed in primary and tertiary granules. After the stimulation with IL-8, irregular reticular structures called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were formed, three types of granules were trapped by NETs and PTX3 showed partial colocalization with these granular components. PTX3 localized in all three types of granules in neutrophils may play important roles in host defense.

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    Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Equipe Avenir, Unité 564, University Hospital of Angers, University of Angers, Angers 49933, France.
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    Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 153-8904, Japan.
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    Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
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