Cell Biochem Funct 2014 Dec 28;32(8):683-91. Epub 2014 Nov 28.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR, Iran.
Unlabelled: Palmitate induces insulin resistance and apoptosis in insulin target tissues. Rosiglitazone (RSG), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, can activate both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic pathways in different cells; however, its effect on palmitate-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle cells remains to be elucidated. After differentiation of C2C12 cells, myotubes were treated with palmitate, RSG and GW9662 (PPARγ antagonist). MTT and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assays and caspase-3 activity were used to investigate the apoptosis. To study the underlying mechanism, glucose uptake, gene expression and protein levels were evaluated. A total of 0.75 mM palmitate reduced cell viability by 43% and increased TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 activity by 15-fold and 6.6-fold, respectively. RSG (10 μM) could markedly decrease the level of TUNEL-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in palmitate-treated cells. The protective effect of RSG on apoptosis was abrogated by GW9662. To investigate the molecular mechanism of this effect, gene expression and protein level of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) were evaluated. Palmitate and RSG individually increased the expression and protein level of PTP1B, whereas combined treatment (palmitate and RSG) were able to further increase the expression of PTP1B in C2C12 cells. We also evaluated the effect of RSG on palmitate-induced insulin resistance in muscle cells. RSG could significantly improve glucose uptake by 0.4-fold in myotubes treated with palmitate. Moreover, RSG could restore the phosphorylation of Akt in palmitate-treated cells. These data suggest that RSG protects skeletal muscle cells against palmitate-induced apoptosis and this effect appears to be mediated via the PPARγ-dependent and PTP1B-independent mechanisms.
Significance Of The Study: Saturated free fatty acids (FFAs), such as palmitate, have been shown to induce cellular apoptosis. Strategies for preventing the cytotoxic effect of palmitate are useful in reduction of diabetes complications. In this study, we introduced RSG as an agent that protects skeletal muscle cells against palmitate-induced apoptosis and insulin resistance. It appears that RSG protects skeletal muscle cells against palmitate-induced apoptosis via the PPARγ-dependent and PTP1B-independent mechanisms. Given the role of FFAs in skeletal muscle apoptosis, these findings support the idea that RSG can ameliorate diabetes complications such as skeletal muscle loss.