Pharm Dev Technol 2016 25;21(1):14-25. Epub 2014 Sep 25.
a Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran .
The aim of this study was preparation, optimization and in vitro characterization of nanoparticles composed of 6-[O-carboxymethyl]-[N,N,N-trimethyl] (TMCMC) for oral delivery of low-molecular-weight heparin. The chitosan derivative was synthesized. Nanoparticles were prepared using the polyelectrolyte complexation method. Box-Behnken response surface experimental design methodology was used for optimization of nanoparticles. The morphology of nanoparticles was studied using transmission electron microscopy. In vitro release of enoxaparin from nanoparticles was determined under simulated intestinal fluid. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on a Caco-2 cell line was determined, and finally the transport of prepared nanoparticles across Caco-2 cell monolayer was defined. Optimized nanoparticles with proper physico-chemical properties were obtained. The size, zeta potential, poly-dispersity index, entrapment efficiency and loading efficiency of nanoparticles were reported as 235 ± 24.3 nm, +18.6 ± 2.57 mV, 0.230 ± 0.03, 76.4 ± 5.43% and 12.6 ± 1.37%, respectively. Morphological studies revealed spherical nanoparticles with no sign of aggregation. In vitro release studies demonstrated that 93.6 ± 1.17% of enoxaparin released from nanoparticles after 600 min of incubation. MTT cell cytotoxicity studies showed no cytotoxicity at 3 h post-incubation, while the study demonstrated concentration-dependent cytotoxicity after 24 h of exposure. The obtained data had shown that the nanoparticles prepared from trimethylcarboxymethyl chitosan may be considered as a good candidate for oral delivery of enoxaparin.