Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans.

Authors:
Iosif Lazaridis Nick Patterson Alissa Mittnik Gabriel Renaud Swapan Mallick Karola Kirsanow Peter H Sudmant Joshua G Schraiber Sergi Castellano Mark Lipson Bonnie Berger Christos Economou Ruth Bollongino Qiaomei Fu Kirsten I Bos Susanne Nordenfelt Heng Li Cesare de Filippo Kay Prüfer Susanna Sawyer Cosimo Posth Wolfgang Haak Fredrik Hallgren Elin Fornander Nadin Rohland Dominique Delsate Michael Francken Jean-Michel Guinet Joachim Wahl George Ayodo Hamza A Babiker Graciela Bailliet Elena Balanovska Oleg Balanovsky Ramiro Barrantes Gabriel Bedoya Haim Ben-Ami Judit Bene Fouad Berrada Claudio M Bravi Francesca Brisighelli George B J Busby Francesco Cali Mikhail Churnosov David E C Cole Daniel Corach Larissa Damba George van Driem Stanislav Dryomov Jean-Michel Dugoujon Sardana A Fedorova Irene Gallego Romero Marina Gubina Michael Hammer Brenna M Henn Tor Hervig Ugur Hodoglugil Aashish R Jha Sena Karachanak-Yankova Rita Khusainova Elza Khusnutdinova Rick Kittles Toomas Kivisild William Klitz Vaidutis Kučinskas Alena Kushniarevich Leila Laredj Sergey Litvinov Theologos Loukidis Robert W Mahley Béla Melegh Ene Metspalu Julio Molina Joanna Mountain Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi Desislava Nesheva Thomas Nyambo Ludmila Osipova Jüri Parik Fedor Platonov Olga Posukh Valentino Romano Francisco Rothhammer Igor Rudan Ruslan Ruizbakiev Hovhannes Sahakyan Antti Sajantila Antonio Salas Elena B Starikovskaya Ayele Tarekegn Draga Toncheva Shahlo Turdikulova Ingrida Uktveryte Olga Utevska René Vasquez Mercedes Villena Mikhail Voevoda Cheryl A Winkler Levon Yepiskoposyan Pierre Zalloua Tatijana Zemunik Alan Cooper Cristian Capelli Mark G Thomas Andres Ruiz-Linares Sarah A Tishkoff Lalji Singh Kumarasamy Thangaraj Richard Villems David Comas Rem Sukernik Mait Metspalu Matthias Meyer Evan E Eichler Joachim Burger Montgomery Slatkin Svante Pääbo Janet Kelso David Reich Johannes Krause

Nature 2014 Sep;513(7518):409-13

1] Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen 72074, Germany. [2] Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany. [3] Max Planck Institut für Geschichte und Naturwissenschaften, Jena 07745, Germany.

We sequenced the genomes of a ∼7,000-year-old farmer from Germany and eight ∼8,000-year-old hunter-gatherers from Luxembourg and Sweden. We analysed these and other ancient genomes with 2,345 contemporary humans to show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians, who contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west European hunter-gatherer related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that early European farmers had ∼44% ancestry from a 'basal Eurasian' population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages.

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