Prog Brain Res 2014 ;212:1-23
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
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J Neurophysiol 2011 Jun 6;105(6):3080-91. Epub 2011 Apr 6.
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19129, USA.
Hypertension elicited by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is associated with elevated activity of the thoracic sympathetic nerve (tSN) that exhibits an enhanced respiratory modulation reflecting a strengthened interaction between respiratory and sympathetic networks within the brain stem. Expiration is a passive process except for special metabolic conditions such as hypercapnia, when it becomes active through phasic excitation of abdominal motor nerves (AbN) in late expiration. An increase in CO(2) evokes late-expiratory (late-E) discharges phase-locked to phrenic bursts with the frequency increasing quantally as hypercapnia increases. Read More
Hypertension 2016 10 1;68(4):1021-30. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
From the Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Brazil.
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) produces respiratory-related sympathetic overactivity and hypertension in rats. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the enhanced central respiratory modulation of sympathetic activity after CIH also decreases the sympathoinhibitory component of baroreflex of rats, which may contribute to the development of hypertension. Wistar rats were exposed to CIH or normoxia (control group) for 10 days. Read More
Exp Neurol 2017 Jan 27;287(Pt 2):153-164. Epub 2016 May 27.
Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:
The respiratory central pattern generator must respond to chemosensory cues to maintain oxygen (O) and carbon dioxide (CO) homeostasis in the blood and tissues. To do this, sensorial cells located in the periphery and central nervous system monitor the arterial partial pressure of O and CO and initiate respiratory and autonomic reflex adjustments in conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia. In conditions of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), repeated peripheral chemoreceptor input mediated by the nucleus of the solitary tract induces plastic changes in respiratory circuits that alter baseline respiratory and sympathetic motor outputs and result in chemoreflex sensitization, active expiration, and arterial hypertension. Read More
Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2010 Nov 15;174(1-2):135-45. Epub 2010 Sep 15.
Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106-5067, USA.
Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is modulated by respiratory activity which indicates the existence of direct interactions between the respiratory and sympathetic networks within the brainstem. Our experimental studies reveal that T(E) prolongation evoked by baroreceptor stimulation varies with respiratory phase and depends on the pons. We speculate that the sympathetic baroreceptor reflex, providing negative feedback from baroreceptors to the rostral ventrolateral medulla and SNA, has two pathways: one direct and independent of the respiratory-sympathetic interactions and the other operating via the respiratory pattern generator and is hence dependent on the respiratory modulation of SNA. Read More