Microb Drug Resist 2014 Dec;20(6):623-31
1 Mycobacteriology Research Section, Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre , Riyadh, Saudi Arabia .
For the first time in Saudi Arabia, the impact of a patient's ethnic background on mutations conferring resistance to rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was analyzed on a nationwide sample collection. Four hundred fifteen isolates were subjected to drug susceptibility testing, mutation analysis, spoligotyping, and 24 loci-based Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeat typing, respectively. Phenotypically, 41 (9.9%) isolates were resistant to RIF, 239 (57.6%) to INH, and 135 (32.5%) to both RIF and INH, respectively. Forty (9.6%), 236 (56.8%), and 133 (32%) isolates were determined as resistant to RIF, INH, and to both by molecular assay. Codon 531 (S531L) mutations (69.4%) in the rpoB gene and codon 315 (S315T) mutations (67.2%) in the katG gene were the most prominent among RIF- and INH-resistant isolates, respectively. The autochthonous population showed a predominance of rpoB codon 516 and 526 mutations, while the inhA promoter position -15 and -8 mutations were prominent among immigrants. A strain cluster ratio of 32% (30 clusters) was observed and 24 clusters displayed identical mutations. Overall, Euro-American lineages were predominant. However, Beijing (56.7%) and EAI (42.7%) were noticed with the highest cluster rate. In Saudi Arabia, the occurrence of mutations responsible for INH and RIF resistance was significantly associated with the ethnic origin of the patient.