Arch Environ Occup Health 2015 ;70(1):47-55
a Department of Public Health Sciences , Queen's University , Kingston , Ontario , Canada.
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Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2010 Dec(152):5-80; discussion 81-91
Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health, USA.
Previous studies have identified associations between traffic exposures and a variety of adverse health effects, but many of these studies relied on proximity measures rather than measured or modeled concentrations of specific air pollutants, complicating interpretability of the findings. An increasing number of studies have used land-use regression (LUR) or other techniques to model small-scale variability in concentrations of specific air pollutants. However, these studies have generally considered a limited number of pollutants, focused on outdoor concentrations (or indoor concentrations of ambient origin) when indoor concentrations are better proxies for personal exposures, and have not taken full advantage of statistical methods for source apportionment that may have provided insight about the structure of the LUR models and the interpretability of model results. Read More
Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2011 Nov(163):3-79
School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH, UK.
On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. Read More
Soc Sci Med 2009 Sep 5;69(6):971-81. Epub 2009 Aug 5.
McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Some neighbourhoods in urban areas are characterised by concentrations of socially and materially deprived populations. Additionally, levels of ambient air pollution in a city can be variable at the local scale and can create disparities in air quality between neighbourhoods. Socioeconomic and physical characteristics of neighbourhood environments can affect the health and well-being of local residents. Read More
Res Rep Health Eff Inst 2012 Oct(171):5-86
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos, México.
Introduction: The ESCALA* project (Estudio de Salud y Contaminación del Aire en Latinoamérica) is an HEI-funded study that aims to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and mortality in nine Latin American cities, using a common analytic framework to obtain comparable and updated information on the effects of air pollution on several causes of death in different age groups. This report summarizes the work conducted between 2006 and 2009, describes the methodologic issues addressed during project development, and presents city-specific results of meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses.
Methods: The ESCALA project involved three teams of investigators responsible for collection and analysis of city-specific air pollution and mortality data from three different countries. Read More