Soluble ST2 protein in the short-term prognosis after hospitalisation in chronic systolic heart failure.

Kardiol Pol 2014 20;72(8):725-34. Epub 2014 May 20.

Klinika Kardiologii, Uniwersytet Medyczny w Łodzi, Łódź.

Background: The prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is poor. ST2 protein is a promising prognostic biomarker for CHF. ST2 belongs to the cardioprotective signalling pathway involving interleukin-33 and its concentration in the serum depends on the biomechanical stress of cardiomyocytes (biomechanical strain).

Aim: To determine the prognostic value of ST2 in short term follow-up after hospitalisation among patients with CHF.

Methods: The study included 167 patients (mean age 62 years, 83% men) in stable NYHA class I-III with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of ≤ 45% (average 29.65%, ranges 13-45%). We analysed 58 variables including: demographics, co-morbidities, resting ECG, echocardiographic and coronary arteriography data, basic laboratory tests including N-terminal prohormone B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), serum concentration of soluble form of ST2 (sST2) using quantitative ELISA test ST2 Kit (Medical and Biological Laboratories; Japan) and adverse cardiovascular events during a one year observation. In the study, the primary endpoint (death) and the composite endpoint (hospitalisation for HF worsening, worsening in NYHA functional class, the need to increase the dose of diuretics, and/or death in a one year observation) were determined.

Results: Patients who died (n = 24; 14.55%) were in more advanced NYHA class, had prolonged QRS duration, higher levels of sST2, NT-proBNP, and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate. From multivariate analysis, the independent variable for the primary endpoint was NT-proBNP (OR = 1.00012; 95% CI 1.00002-1.00022; p = 0.018). 93 (56%) patients reached the composite endpoint. Multivariate analysis revealed that fasting glucose (OR = 1.343; 95% CI 1.041-1.732; p = 0.023) and sST2 (OR = 3.593; 95% CI 1.427-9.05; p = 0.007) independently enhanced the risk of composite endpoint occurrence in a one year observation.

Conclusions: In patients with CHF with LVEF ≤ 45%, the prognostic value of sST2 protein in a short-term observation of one year was confirmed. sST2 protein was an independent variable for the composite endpoint, which consisted of worsening NYHA functional class, hospitalisation for worsening of HF, the need to increase the dose of diuretics, and/or death.

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