Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2014 Nov 8;49(11):1719-27. Epub 2014 May 8.
Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy I, Centres for Psychiatry Südwürttemberg, Ulm University, Weissenau, ZfP Südwürttemberg, Versorgungsforschung, Weingartshofer Str. 2, 88214, Ravensburg, Germany.
Background: The aim of the study was to examine the differences between former involuntary and voluntary patients with a schizophrenic disorder with regard to time to and frequency of rehospitalization.
Methods: In this prospective observational study, 374 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were included. At the time of inclusion, 290 (77.5 %) were hospitalized voluntarily and 84 (22.5 %) involuntarily. Follow-up assessments were conducted half-yearly over a 2-year period with measures of PANSS, GAF, sociodemographic data and cognitive functioning. These data served as covariates for adjustment in statistical models that included a Cox regression model, a random-effect logit model and a random-effect tobit model.
Results: After adjustment for other relevant covariates, the Cox regression showed that involuntary treatment is a significant risk factor of subsequent rehospitalization (HR = 1.53; CI = 1.06, 2.19; p = 0.02). The involuntary group had higher half-year incidence rates of rehospitalization, and in case of rehospitalization the duration of hospital stay was longer.
Conclusions: Involuntary hospitalization seems to be associated with a higher risk of rehospitalization and longer subsequent hospital stays in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders. Further studies are needed to examine in detail the processes and interventions that are suitable for interrupting circles of repeated hospitalizations, especially in former involuntary patients.