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    Nanocrystalline rutile electron extraction layer enables low-temperature solution processed perovskite photovoltaics with 13.7% efficiency.
    Nano Lett 2014 May 2;14(5):2591-6. Epub 2014 Apr 2.
    Laboratory of Photonics and Interfaces, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) , Station 6, CH 1015, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    We demonstrate low-temperature (70 °C) solution processing of TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells, resulting in impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.7%. Along with the high efficiency, a strikingly high open circuit potential (VOC) of 1110 mV was realized using this low-temperature chemical bath deposition approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest VOC value for solution-processed TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. We deposited a nanocrystalline TiO2 (rutile) hole-blocking layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate via hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 70 °C, forming the electron selective contact with the photoactive CH3NH3PbI3 film. We find that the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 achieves a much better performance than a planar TiO2 (anatase) film prepared by high-temperature spin coating of TiCl4, which produces a much lower PCE of 3.7%. We attribute this to the formation of an intimate junction of large interfacial area between the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 and the CH3NH3PbI3 layer, which is much more effective in extracting photogenerated electrons than the planar anatase film. Since the complete fabrication of the solar cell is carried out below 100 °C, this method can be easily extended to plastic substrates.

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    Effects of TiCl4 treatment on the structural and electrochemical properties of a porous TiO2 layer in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.
    Phys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Oct;19(39):26898-26905
    Research Center for Solar Energy Chemistry, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531, Japan.
    The effects of surface treatment with TiCl4 on the structural and electrochemical properties of a porous titanium oxide (pTiO2) layer deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrate covered with a dense TiO2 layer (pTiO2/dTiO2/FTO/glass) were systematically investigated in order to obtain an optimum pTiO2 layer for use in CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells. As confirmed by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) analyses, the amount of surface hydroxyl groups in pTiO2 varied when the pTiO2/dTiO2/FTO/glass sample was treated with solutions with different concentrations of TiCl4 (i.e. Read More
    Well-Defined Nanostructured, Single-Crystalline TiO2 Electron Transport Layer for Efficient Planar Perovskite Solar Cells.
    ACS Nano 2016 Jun 18;10(6):6029-36. Epub 2016 May 18.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) , San 31, Nam-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk 790-784, Korea.
    An electron transporting layer (ETL) plays an important role in extracting electrons from a perovskite layer and blocking recombination between electrons in the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and holes in the perovskite layers, especially in planar perovskite solar cells. Dense TiO2 ETLs prepared by a solution-processed spin-coating method (S-TiO2) are mainly used in devices due to their ease of fabrication. Herein, we found that fatal morphological defects at the S-TiO2 interface due to a rough FTO surface, including an irregular film thickness, discontinuous areas, and poor physical contact between the S-TiO2 and the FTO layers, were inevitable and lowered the charge transport properties through the planar perovskite solar cells. Read More
    Influence of TiCl4 post-treatment condition on TiO2 electrode for enhancement photovoltaic efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2014 Oct;14(10):7705-9
    Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) treatment processed by chemical bath deposition is usually adopted as pre- and post-treatment for nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) film deposition in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) technology. TiCl4 post-treatment is a widely known method capable of improving the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the TiO2 electrode is proposed and compared to the untreated film. Read More
    Tuning perovskite morphology by polymer additive for high efficiency solar cell.
    ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2015 Mar 23;7(8):4955-61. Epub 2015 Feb 23.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering and §Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University , Taipei 10617, Taiwan.
    Solution processable planar heterojunction perovskite solar cell is a very promising new technology for low cost renewable energy. One of the most common cell structures is FTO/TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3-xClx/spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The main issues of this type of solar cell are the poor coverage and morphology control of the perovskite CH3NH3PbI3-xClx film on TiO2. Read More