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    Linking toxicity and adaptive responses across the transcriptome, proteome, and phenotype of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exposed to silver.
    • Authors:
    • Dr. Smitha Pillai, PhD
      H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute
      Research Scientist
      United States
      Renata Behra
      Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
      Holger Nestler
      Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
      Marc J-F Suter
      Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
      Laura Sigg
      Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
      Kristin Schirmer
      Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2014 Mar 18;111(9):3490-5. Epub 2014 Feb 18.
    Department of Environmental Toxicology, Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland.
    Understanding mechanistic and cellular events underlying a toxicological outcome allows the prediction of impact of environmental stressors to organisms living in different habitats. A systems-based approach aids in characterizing molecular events, and thereby the cellular pathways that have been perturbed. However, mapping only adverse outcomes of a toxicant falls short of describing the stress or adaptive response that is mounted to maintain homeostasis on perturbations and may confer resistance to the toxic insult. Silver is a potential threat to aquatic organisms because of the increasing use of silver-based nanomaterials, which release free silver ions. The effects of silver were investigated at the transcriptome, proteome, and cellular levels of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The cells instigate a fast transcriptome and proteome response, including perturbations in copper transport system and detoxification mechanisms. Silver causes an initial toxic insult, which leads to a plummeting of ATP and photosynthesis and damage because of oxidative stress. In response, the cells mount a defense response to combat oxidative stress and to eliminate silver via efflux transporters. From the analysis of the perturbations of the cell's functions, we derived a detailed mechanistic understanding of temporal dynamics of toxicity and adaptive response pathways for C. reinhardtii exposed to silver.

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