Reference values for dynamic facial muscle ultrasonography in adults.

Authors:
Gerd Fabian Volk
Gerd Fabian Volk
Jena University Hospital
Germany
Maik Sauer
Maik Sauer
Jena University Hospital
Germany
Martin Pohlmann
Martin Pohlmann
Jena University Hospital
Germany
Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
Orlando Guntinas-Lichius
Jena University Hospital
Germany

Muscle Nerve 2014 Sep;50(3):348-57

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jena University Hospital, Lessingstrasse 2, D-07740, Jena, Germany; The Facial Nerve Center, Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Introduction: Ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes caused by neuromuscular disease, but it has not yet been applied to facial nerve diseases. Quantitative analysis would be the preferred method to determine whether ultrasound findings are within normal limits, but there are no normative data for mimic muscles. The purpose of this study was to provide gender-specific normative ultrasonography data for muscle area, diameter, and contractility for mimic and masticatory muscles in adults.

Methods: Bilateral scans of multiple mimic and masticatory muscles were performed at rest and during contraction in 140 volunteers, aged 21-93 years.

Results: Almost all mimic muscles, but not the temporalis muscles, had symmetric size. The muscle sizes showed gender differences and a muscle-specific correlation with body weight, but not with age.

Conclusions: These data provide normative values that can be used in clinical practice.

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September 2014
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Surg Radiol Anat 1988
Probability plotting methods for the analysis of data
Wilk et al.
Biometrika 1968

Pepe et al.
2003
Ultrasonic investigation of the circumoral musculature
Vinkka-Puhakka et al.
J Anat 1989

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