PLoS One 2014 31;9(1):e87531. Epub 2014 Jan 31.
Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Charité, Mitte and Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
The model of infrarenal aortocaval fistula (ACF) has recently gained new interest in its use to investigate cardiac pathophysiology. Since in previous investigations the development of congestive heart failure (CHF) was inconsistent and started to develop earliest 8-10 weeks after fistula induction using a 18G needle, this project aimed to induce a predictable degree of CHF within a definite time period using a modified approach. An aortocaval fistula was induced in male Wistar rats using a 16G needle as a modification of the former 18G needle-technique described by Garcia and Diebold. Results revealed within 28 ± 2 days of ACF significantly increased heart and lung weight indices in the ACF group accompanied by elevated filling pressure. All hemodynamic parameters derived from a pressure-volume conductance-catheter in vivo were significantly altered in the ACF consistent with severe systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction. This was accompanied by systemic neurohumoral activation as demonstrated by elevated rBNP-45 plasma concentrations in every rat of the ACF group. Furthermore, the restriction in overall cardiac function was associated with a β1- and β2-adrenoreceptor mRNA downregulation in the left ventricle. In contrast, β3-adrenoreceptor mRNA was upregulated. Finally, electron microscopy of the left ventricle of rats in the ACF group showed signs of progressive subcellular myocardial fragmentation. In conclusion, the morphometric, hemodynamic and neurohumoral characterization of the modified approach revealed predictable and consistent signs of congestive heart failure within 28 ± 2 days. Therefore, this modified approach might facilitate the examination of various questions specific to CHF and allow for pharmacological interventions to determine pathophysiological pathways.