Front Physiol 2014 24;5:15. Epub 2014 Jan 24.
Humanitas Clinical and Research Center Rozzano (Milan), Italy ; University of Milan Milan, Italy.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia, especially in the elderly, and has a significant genetic component. Recently, several independent investigators have demonstrated a functional role for small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) in the pathophysiology of this cardiac arrhythmia. This report represents a systematic and updated appraisal of the main studies that established a mechanistic association between specific microRNAs and AF, focusing both on the regulation of electrical and structural remodeling of cardiac tissue.