Appl Environ Microbiol 2014 Mar 10;80(6):1893-8. Epub 2014 Jan 10.
College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an important zoonotic pathogen. To assess the human-infective potential of E. bieneusi in nonhuman primates (NHPs), we examined the prevalence and genotype distribution of E. bieneusi in 23 NHP species by PCR and sequence analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS). A total of 1,386 fecal specimens from NHPs from five provinces in China were examined, and E. bieneusi was detected in 158 (11.4%) specimens from five NHP species, including cynomolgus monkey (67.7%), rhesus macaque (8.8%), Japanese macaque (33.3%), white-headed langur (13.6%), and golden snub-nosed monkey (3.5%) (P < 0.0001). The infection rates were 70.2%, 21.5%, 8.5%, 7.5%, and 5.6% in Guangdong, Yunnan, Guangxi, Henan, and Sichuan Provinces, respectively (P < 0.0001). The prevalence was significantly higher in captive (13.7%) than in free-range (5.0%) animals (P < 0.0001). Altogether, 16 ITS genotypes were observed, including nine known genotypes (IV, D, Henan V, Peru8, PigEBITS7, EbpC, Peru11, BEB6, and I) and seven new genotypes (CM1 to CM7). The common genotypes included CM1, IV, and D, which were detected in 43, 31, and 30 specimens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that seven known genotypes (but not BEB6 and I) and four new genotypes (CM1, CM2, CM3, and CM6) belonged to the previously described group 1 with zoonotic potential. Genotypes CM5 and CM7 clustered with group 2, whereas genotype CM4 did not belong to any of the previously proposed groups. It was concluded that humans and NHPs residing in the same geographical location shared the same E. bieneusi genotypes, indicating a potential role of these animals in the zoonotic transmission of E. bieneusi.
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