Heme iron intake and risk of new-onset diabetes in a Mediterranean population at high risk of cardiovascular disease: an observational cohort analysis.

BMC Public Health 2013 Nov 4;13:1042. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

Unidad Nutrición y Salud Pública, Universitat Rovira i Virgili Reus, Tarragona, Spain.

Background: Several epidemiological studies have observed an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among subjects with a higher consumption of red and processed meat. Heme iron intake has been directly associated with a higher risk of T2DM in healthy adult Chinese and U.S populations. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between heme iron intake and the incidence of T2DM in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

Methods: We assessed a subset of participants in the PREDIMED trial as an observational cohort, followed up for a maximum of eight years. We initially included 1073 non-diabetic subjects (57.1% women) aged 67.3 ± 6.0 years, at high cardiovascular risk. Diet was assessed at the study baseline using a validated, semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire.

Results: During the follow-up period 131 diabetics were newly diagnosed. The risk of developing T2DM was assessed using baseline heme iron intake and proportional hazard models, first unadjusted, then adjusted for energy, and finally adjusted for dietary, anthropometric, socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Significant direct associations with the incidence of T2DM were found for heme iron (Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.66). Secondarily, we have also observed that coffee (HR:0.93, 95% CI, 0.89 to 0.98) and alcoholic beverages (HR: 1.02, 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.04) were also found to reduce and increase the risk of T2DM, respectively.

Conclusion: High dietary intake of heme iron was associated with an increased risk of developing T2DM in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk.

Trial Registration: Identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/14
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4228354PMC
November 2013
5 Reads

Publication Analysis

Top Keywords

heme iron
24
iron intake
16
population high
12
high cardiovascular
12
mediterranean population
12
risk t2dm
8
risk developing
8
incidence t2dm
8
observational cohort
8
increased risk
8
risk
8
developing t2dm
8
t2dm mediterranean
8
t2dm
7
heme
6
intake
5
high
5
iron
5
diagnosed risk
4
period 131
4

Similar Publications