J Clin Oncol 2013 Dec 21;31(34):4319-24. Epub 2013 Oct 21.
All authors: Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.
Purpose: There is consensus that patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis with hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and lytic bone lesions attributable to clonal expansion of plasma cells (CRAB criteria) also have multiple myeloma (MM). The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of immunoglobulin AL amyloidosis with and without MM, with a goal of defining the optimal bone marrow plasma cell (BMPC) number to qualify as AL amyloidosis with MM.
Patients And Methods: We identified 1,255 patients with AL amyloidosis seen within 90 days of diagnosis between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010. We defined a population of patients with coexisting MM on the basis of the existence of CRAB criteria (AL-CRAB). Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the optimal BMPC cut point to predict for 1-year mortality in patients with AL amyloidosis without CRAB to produce two additional groups: AL only (≤ 10% BMPCs) and AL plasma cell MM (AL-PCMM; > 10% BMPCs).
Results: Among the 1,255 patients, 100 (8%) had AL-CRAB, 476 (38%) had AL-PCMM, and 679 (54%) had AL only. Their respective median overall survival rates were 10.6, 16.2, and 46 months (P < .001). Because the outcomes of AL-CRAB and AL-PCMM were similar, they were pooled for univariate and multivariate analyses. On multivariate analysis, pooled AL-CRAB and AL-PCMM retained negative prognostic value independent of age, Mayo Clinic AL amyloidosis stage, prior autologous stem-cell transplantation, and difference between the involved and uninvolved free light chain.
Conclusion: Patients with AL amyloidosis who have more than 10% BMPCs have a poor prognosis, similar to that of patients with AL-CRAB, and should therefore be considered together as AL amyloidosis with MM.