Gastrointest Endosc 2014 Apr 11;79(4):589-98. Epub 2013 Oct 11.
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Background: Factors associated with successful endoscopic therapy with temporary stents for esophageal leaks, fistulae, and perforations (L/F/P) are not well known.
Objectives: To evaluate the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of esophageal stenting in these patients and identify factors associated with successful closure.
Setting: Academic tertiary referral center.
Patients: All patients with attempted stent placement for esophageal L/F/P between January 2003 and May 2012.
Intervention: Esophageal stent placement and removal.
Main Outcome Measurements: Factors predictive of therapeutic success defined as complete closure after index stent removal (primary closure) or after further endoscopic stenting (secondary closure).
Results: Sixty-seven patients with 132 attempted stents for esophageal L/F/P were considered; 13 patients were excluded. Among the remaining 54 patients, 117 stents were placed for leaks (29 patients; 64 stents), fistulae (15 patients; 36 stents), and perforations (10 patients; 17 stents). Procedural technical success was achieved in all patients (100%). Primary closure was successful in 40 patients (74%) and secondary closure in an additional 5 (83% overall). On short-term (<3 months) follow-up, 27 patients (50%) were asymptomatic, whereas 22 (41%) had technical adverse events, including stent migration in 15 patients (28%). Factors associated with successful primary closure include a shorter time between diagnosis of esophageal L/F/P and initial stent insertion (9.03 vs 22.54 days; P = .003), and a smaller luminal opening size (P = .002).
Limitations: Retrospective, single-center study.
Conclusions: Temporary stents are safe and effective in treating esophageal L/F/P. Defect opening size and time from diagnosis to stent placement appear to be candidate predictors for successful closure.